'Some of the research subjects addressed under ELIPS-4 are entirely new. Many species on Earth migrate continuously. Scientists investigate these great annual migrations to improve their knowledge of range and migration patterns – not least with a view to understanding biological invasions and pandemic diseases. However, biologists only know the details of the migration routes of very few animal species, most of them big. The migratory patterns of birds or insects leave scientists generally in the dark. This is where the ICARUS project comes in, under which animal migrations are recorded from the ISS. It involves equipping small animals like birds or butterflies with small transmitters (5g), which indicate their position with a precision down to a few metres. At the same time, the ICARUS project is designed to initiate a boost in technology towards further miniaturisation and to improve communications between orbit and Earth'.